In the 2nd semester you must choose one of six specialisations. The learning outcomes for each specialisation are outlined below:

HEALTH ECONOMICS (research track)



Healthcare institutions are complex and dynamic. The nature of organisations requires that managers provide leadership, as well as the supervision and coordination of employees. Often managers must consider external and internal domains in carrying out tasks and making decisions. The external domain refers to the influences, resources, and activities that exist outside the boundary of the organisation but that significantly affect the organisation. These factors include community needs, population characteristics, reimbursement issues as well as government plans. The internal domain refers to those areas of focus that managers need to address on a daily basis, such as ensuring the appropriate number and types of staff, financial performance and quality of care. Keeping the dual perspective requires significant balance on the part of management of healthcare institutions.

After completing the specialisation you will:

  • Understand the management tools and techniques used to design and manage successful organisations
  • Develop a good understanding of core financial accounting and control principles
  • Gain competence in reading and understanding financial statements and develop a robust understanding of the work of management accounting, incorporating budget preparation, budget appraisal, costing, and financial appraisal techniques
  • Take a practical approach to funding negotiation and negotiation in general
  • Be able to describe leadership domains and competencies and compare leadership styles
  • Be able to differentiate between the functions, roles and responsibilities of healthcare managers
  • Be able to define and apply key quality concepts
  • Demonstrate personal and professional ethical responsibility in all managerial and organisational decision making
  • Gain a deeper understanding of evaluating and creating dynamic and flexible strategies for healthcare delivery
  • Have explored ways to effectively and efficiently foster innovation within the care setting
  • Understand the features of marketing management in healthcare organisations, and the steps through which marketing helps an organisation identify the needs of and focus on its customers
  • Be able to design public campaigns in preventive medicine and apply social marketing techniques, both addressing public will and individual behaviors


Economic evaluation is increasingly used for medical decision making and priority settings within healthcare. This requires that many more professionals than today can perform and interpret these evaluations. This specialisation is focusing on the most commonly used health economic evaluation methods and provides the participants with the skills to critically assess these evaluations.

After completing the specialisation you will:

  • have a profound understanding of economic theories and models of programme evaluations
  • know basic theories of decision making under uncertainty
  • be able to develop decision tree models and Markov models for economic evaluation and evaluate uncertainty in such models
  • be able to develop and perform simple HTA-studies
  • be experienced in different methods which estimate the effects of a treatment or a policy intervention
  • be able to understand, apply and analyse EU pharmaceutical legislation related to relevant cases/topics
  • be able to distinguish different decision-making frameworks, such as informed decision making, situated judgment and political decision making
  • understand key concepts of pharmaceuticals pricing and market access

HEALTH ECONOMICS (research track)

Healthcare systems worldwide confront the challenge of meeting seemingly unlimited patient needs and demands with constrained and limited resources. Health economics is playing an increasing role, providing analysis to inform healthcare decision making and policy formation. This specialisation prepares students for undertaking, promoting and facilitating high quality health economics research.
The learning outcomes for students in this specialisation include the development of a thorough knowledge of the theory and methods used in health economics research and their potential applications in decision-making. The overall goal is to provide students with current tools to undertake health economics research and practice.

After completing the specialisation you will:

  • gain an understanding of the key analytical reasoning and tools of health economics and their normative foundations and ethical implications
  • have competence to apply economic concepts and models to the fields of demand for health, demand for health services, demand for health insurance, provision of health insurance and provision of healthcare.
  • have an enhanced understanding of the health-related behavioral determinants and an overview of some recent policies aimed at improving the population’s lifestyle
  • have knowledge of basic economic theories and models of regulation applied to provision of healthcare
  • acquire extensive knowledge of the nature and sources of socio-economic data
  • have knowledge of relevant econometrics models for the analysis of the economic agents’ behavior in the field based on cross sectional and longitudinal data
  • have developed skills supporting evidence-based decision making, and have adequate knowledge of the evaluation approaches and their applications to the different health promotion programmes
  • be able to interpret the decentralisation process in the healthcare sector in many countries
  • be able to describe, analyse and critically address economic aspects of global health issues


Managers in healthcare organisations must make frequent decisions, using collected data. They must decide how to direct and organise others, and also how to control processes within the system. Moreover, healthcare managers must also help others to reach their own decisions.
Decision making, the act of selecting a course of action from among alternatives, can be quite stressful in today’s dynamic and complex healthcare environment. Healthcare managers can reduce their stress somewhat if they understand how to deal with decision making and how to avoid common errors that lead to poor decisions.

After completing the specialisation you will:

  • be able to utilise data to support quality and performance measurement and decision-making processes for healthcare entities
  • will be trained in critically reviewing HTA-studies, in order to judge their validity and applicability and will have advanced knowledge on the usefulness of HTA-studies for policy making
  • be able to distinguish different decision-making frameworks, like informed decision making, situated judgment and political decision making
  • be able to analyse the impact of various management and leadership theories within healthcare organisations and delivery systems
  • become both users and producers of quality health services research that enables evidence-informed decision making
  • have gained comprehensive knowledge and understanding of core ethical principles and moral philosophies which can guide ethical decision-making
  • be able to design public campaigns in preventive medicine and apply social marketing techniques, both addressing public will and individual behaviours.
  • have acquired an advanced level of expertise on how culture and values influence management and organisational practices in the context of a social, political and economic environment
  • have developed further the ability to reason and argue taking into account multiculturalism
  • have increased the ability to manage with personal resources under pressure


Global Health is a policy field addressing health problems and issues that transcend national boundaries. The underlying assumption is that the world’s health problems are shared and best tackled by cooperative action and the sharing of innovative solutions. The increase in international aid to support health programmes in developing countries, along with a general rise in interest in global health issues coming from governments, multilateral organisations, ONGs, civil society, and the private sector, make this field a prominent one for a prospective scholar looking for steady jobs in these international institutions.

After completing the specialisation you will:

  • have acquired a better understanding of the global distribution of health and disease and of the underlying determinants and trends
  • have an overview over mechanisms relating population health and economic development
  • have a greater understanding of the complexities of health economics and policy in low and middle income countries
  • understand the governance of global health through national, multilateral and private institutions  including the role of WTO in trade‐related aspects of intellectual property agreement (TRIPS) on access to medicines
  • have a profound knowledge of and skills in comparative policy analysis of health system reform
  • command on frameworks for prevention and control of global health crises such as influenza pandemics, food scares or bioterrorism
  • have a profound understanding of theories and models for the economic evaluation of health programmes like vaccination, drugs provision, disease eradication, healthy behavior promotion
  • have an enhanced understanding of the health-related behavioral determinants and an overview of recent policies aimed at improving the population’s lifestyles in different populations


Healthcare managers are confronted with a number of concerns relating to the overall costs of healthcare, how it is financed, how health insurance works, where the gaps in insurance are and how to better manage these areas.

After completing the specialisation you will:

  • be able to identify the concepts of healthcare financing and payment for healthcare
  • be able to provide an overview of how health insurance works and to compare and contrast different types of health insurance
  • Be able to identify the concepts of healthcare financing and payment for healthcare
  • have a general knowledge on advanced treatment of health economics issues with a special emphasis on the market for healthcare insurance, pharmaceutical industry, and innovation in healthcare
  • will have a detailed knowledge of the enforcement of the EU antitrust rules in the field of healthcare
  • is in a position to understand the fundamental microeconomic justifications of public intervention in the economy and to identify potential remedies and their limitations.
  • comprehensive knowledge and understanding of core ethical principles and moral philosophies which can guide ethical decision-making
  • demonstrate basic knowledge and awareness on how medical prevention programmes are financed, designed and implemented
  • be able to critically discuss financial aspects of public health prevention programmes
  • be familiar with measures to ensure the sustainability of health systems in the future and ways to monitor, manage and improve performance so that health systems are as effective and efficient as possible
  • have experience in exercising executive ability in a project